You, you, and you... panic. The rest of you, come with VET2VET © 2016


United States Army Alaska (USARAK) Pamphlet 600-2
28 November 2012
a. Safety. One of the most critical things a Soldier can do is to ensure everything they do is done safely; every Soldier in USARAK is a “safety officer/NCO”. Safety is an individual, as well as, a leader responsibility. Everyone, from the USARAK Commander down, must take an active role in the identification and prevention of accidents. Nothing we do in training is worth the life or limb of our Soldiers. This section addresses some of the policies and measures you may take to help protect the force. If you need information, have suggestions, or wish to report a safety violation, contact the Mission Safety Office at 384-2310/2132 at JBER or 353-7412/7078 at Fort Wainwright or visit the website at:
b. Risk Management. The OPTEMPO and the daily training of Soldiers assigned to USARAK bring with it inherent hazards. Soldiers must practice risk management during their daily activities in order to protect our force. Risk Management is a five-step process that is used to identify hazards and take measures to lessen the risk to Soldiers.
c. Privately Own Vehicle (POV) Safety. POV accidents are the number one cause of fatalities Army wide. Alarming numbers of Soldiers are killed and injured every year here and at every installation across the Army. Everyone, from the individual Soldier to Commanders, must take aggressive measures to reduce the number of POV fatalities. Remember, safety doesn't end when you take the uniform off.
(1) The primary causes of accidents are: (a) Drinking and driving.
(b) Falling asleep at the wheel.
(c) Speed to the point of losing control of the vehicle.
(2) All Soldiers will do the POV risk assessment TRiPS prior to going on leave, pass, TDY, or PCS. This can be accessed through the USARAK Safety web site at or the Army Combat Readiness Center web site at
(3) Use common sense when operating a privately owned vehicle. Ensure the vehicle is in good condition prior to operation. Leaders will conduct an inspection of vehicles monthly or prior to the start of a long weekend. Deficiencies will be corrected prior to operating the vehicle. A checklist can be found at:
d. Motorcycle/ATV Safety.
(1) Motorcycle accidents, including ATVs, generally result in serious injuries. Motorcycles, unlike automobiles, offer no protection against injury. Avoiding the accident is the only way to prevent the injury. Motorcycle riders must drive defensively. To do so requires proper mental and physical skills.
(2) All motorcyclists must successfully complete a Motorcycle Safety Foundation approved course prior to operating a motorcycle on the installation. These courses are scheduled throughout the spring and summer and are free of charge. For further information on the class, call 552-5092 at JBER and 353-7079/7085 at Fort Wainwright.
(3) Safety requires that all Soldiers who operate or ride motorcycles, dirt bikes and ATVs on or off the installation must wear:
(a) Clear goggles or a face shield attached to the helmet (windshields and fairings do not meet this requirement).
(b) Full fingered leather gloves or other abrasion resistant material.
(c) Reflective vest or reflective belt.
(d) Long-sleeved shirt or jacket, long trousers and sturdy over-the-ankle footwear that affords protection for the feet and ankles. Motorcycle jackets and pants constructed of abrasion-resistant materials such as Kevlar, or Corduroy and containing impact-absorbing padding are strongly encouraged. Riders are encouraged to select PPE that incorporates fluorescent colors and retro-reflective material.
(e) Properly fastened (under the chin) motorcycle helmet that at least meet the DOT/SNELL standards.
(4) To maintain peak performance, a trained rider must practice skills, or they will not be there when you need them. Additionally, installation policy requires that motorcycles operate with the headlights on at all times and the motorcycle must have two rear view mirrors, one on each side.
e. Tactical Vehicles. Privately Owned Vehicles (POVs) will not be used during tactical operations to include Drop Zones, EIB, and EFMB. Tactical vehicles and military transportation will be the means of ground movement in the field environment. Other extra precautions must be taken when operating in or around tactical vehicles. Only military licensed drivers are authorized to operate these vehicles. Drivers will not use cell phones (or headsets, blue tooth or hands free devices) when operating tactical vehicles. Vehicle operators must ensure they follow all technical standards for the safe operation of the vehicle. When manning the hatches of a Stryker vehicle all crew members will wear head protection (ACH, CVC or MITCH), eye protection, and will maintain ‘Name Tag Defilade’ posture.
(1) Do not operate a military vehicle if not properly dispatched. All operators must have a current and otherwise valid permit (OF 346) covering the vehicle being operated. Do not dispatch or allow dispatching of any vehicle unless both dispatch and driver's permit are proper and cover the vehicle being dispatched. Given the nature of our environment in Alaska and long periods of darkness drivers of military vehicles need to make sure that the vehicle is clean at all times to include headlights and windshields.
(2) Vehicle ground guides are required when:
(a) Tactical Vehicles are moving in or around unit Motor Pools.
(b) Tactical Vehicles enter congested, confined, or bivouac areas.
(c) Before a wheeled or track vehicle is moved in an assembly or bivouac
(d) During movement within or through an assembly area. Tracked and Stryker vehicles require two ground guides, front and rear. Guides must be able to see each other, be visible to the driver, and be located 10 meters in front and off to the side of the driver, not in the vehicle's path. If the driver loses sight of the ground guide, they will stop the vehicle until line of sight is regained.
(e) When traveling cross-country, during periods of reduced visibility (extreme ground fog, snowstorms, dust/sand storms, etc.).
(3) Passenger conduct –always maintain 3 points of contact.
(a) All personnel in the vehicle will wear seat belts and head protection (ACH, CVC or Mitch).
(b) Troop straps will be utilized by personnel riding in the back of authorized troop carriers.
(c) No one will ride on top of vehicles. Crew will rehearse roll over drills. windshields. (d) Soldiers will wear eye protection/Goggles in vehicles without
(e) Operators will strictly adhere to speed limits for type of vehicle.
(f) No tactical vehicle will travel faster on the installation than 35 MPH on hard surface roads, 30 MPH on dirt roads and 10 MPH when passing troops in formation.
(g) All firebreaks and trails; reasonable/prudent NTE 20 MPH. (h) Under NVGs NTE 15 MPH.
(i) The TC will be the ranking individual – NO EXCEPTIONS.
(j) The driver and the TC are responsible for the safety of the personnel riding on their vehicle. Drivers and TCs must refuse to move the vehicle if anyone is in an unsafe position or if the vehicle has too many passengers.
(k) Passengers, who are not crewmembers and carried in the cab of the vehicle, are limited to available seat belt positions.
(l) All personnel will wear head protection (ACH, MITCH CVC, or flight helmets as appropriate) while operating or riding as a passenger in Army tactical vehicles in a field training area.
f. Running and Foot Marches on Roadways. Soldiers conducting foot marches during hours of limited visibility must be aware of danger and exercise caution. Preventive measures must be taken to ensure the safety of everyone involved in the event. For JBER, refer to JBER Running Route Policy and for Fort Wainwright, refer to FWA Authorized Physical Training Running Routes Policy which lists the measures that must take place when Soldiers are running or marching on roadways on JBER or Fort Wainwright. Both JBER / FWA have their running route maps posted on their web sites.
(1) A formation is an assembled group of military personnel under the supervision of a leader and in two or more squad columns. Units conducting individual foot marches are not defined as formations.
(2) When conducting PRT, commanders will maximize use of off-road areas, tank trails, firebreaks and running paths.
(3) Any four or more lane road and roads where the speed exceeds 35 MPH are off limits to formations.
(4) Individual runners, foot marchers and walkers will use off-road areas such as sidewalks, firebreaks, unimproved roads, and road shoulders. Individual runners and marchers will not walk on the hard surface of roads except to cross at right angles only as necessary.
(5) Formations will proceed with traffic.
(6) Units conducting PT on roads without static road guards will utilize front and rear road guards wearing reflective vests. Flashlights must be used by road guards and any group of three or more personnel designated by the leaders during periods of limited visibility. Road guards must be positioned far enough to the front and rear of the formation to influence traffic appropriately.
(7) Soldiers will not wear headphones while running, foot marching, or riding bicycles in or out of uniform (per AR 385-10, The Army Safety Program, dated 23 August 2007), with the exception to guidance for, Patron Dress for Physical Fitness Facilities, which outlines authorized headphone usage in USARAK gyms.
(8) No group above squad level will run in the housing area. All runners will utilize the sidewalk, if available. Cadence calling is not allowed in the housing areas.
(9) Leaders and supervisors will conduct a briefing of these guidelines prior to runs and foot marches and ensure compliance is followed throughout the duration of the event.
(10) Foot Marches will not begin before 0630 unless approved by the battalion commander.
(11) There are two uniform options when conducting foot marches: (a) Full tactical uniform with Reflective safety belt or vest.
or vest.
(b) Appropriate IPFU with boots and rucksack with Reflective safety belt (c) Reflective safety belt will be worn horizontally around the rucksack.
g. Temperature Zone Criteria and PT Cold Weather Training. Leaders are the first line of defense against cold weather injuries (CWIs). It is every leader’s responsibility to thoroughly analyze the associated risks, and exercise sound judgment during the conduct of cold weather physical training (PT). Leaders are expected to maintain an aggressive PT program, but not at the expense of unnecessary CWIs. It is imperative that leaders train and educate Soldiers to train and operate in the cold without injury. Direct supervision is a key element to ensure that Soldiers possess and properly utilize the correct clothing and equipment for all training activities.
(1) During the winter months (October through April), all major subordinate commands (brigades, tenant units and separate commands) can dial 384-3034 at JBER or 353-7121 at Fort Wainwright to determine the temperature prior to the start of PT. Temperature variations between 10 and 20 degrees are possible, depending on the time of day and training location. Information listed in CG Policy Statement #0-14 will assist the commander in conducting a risk assessment prior to conducting unit physical fitness training.
h. Cold Weather Injuries. Soldiers must be aware of the dangers posed by cold weather and the injuries that may result. Listed below are some of the symptoms and first aid for cold weather injuries.
(1) Standards of cold weather injury.
(a) A tingling sensation, aches, or cramps.
(b) White and wrinkled soles of the feet. Walking and standing are extremely painful.
(c) Waxy and pale or red skin. This is a symptom of more severe cold weather injury.
(d) A scratchy feeling when eyelids close. This can be an early symptom of snow blindness
(2) Basic First Aid. Personnel will seek medical treatment as soon as possible and will follow the appropriate instructions in (a) through (g) below.
(a) Frostbitten Face. Cover the affected area with your bare hands until color returns to the face.
(b) Frostbitten Feet. Remove the Soldier boots and place the exposed feet under the clothing and against the body of another person.
(c) Frostbitten Hands. Open the casualty’s outer garments and place his or her hands under the armpits. Close the outer garments to prevent further exposure.
(d) Protection from the Cold. Remove the casualty to the most sheltered area and cover him or her with a blanket. Be sure the blanket is over and under the casualty.
(e) Snow Blindness. Cover the person’s eyes with a dark cloth, shutting out all light.
(f) Superficial Frostbite. Rub the affected area with bare hands.
(g) Do not immerse affected areas in hot water or rub snow on affected
(3) Remember the acronym COLD:
C Clean – wear clean clothing
O Overdress – don’t overdress causing overheating L Layer – wear clothing in layers
D Dry – wear dry clothing
i. Lawn Equipment Safety. Soldiers often sustain injuries due to unsafe operation of lawn equipment. Lack of safety equipment and unfamiliarity with the equipment is a major cause of these injuries. The following is a list of preventative measures that must be taken to reduce the risk of injuries.
(1) Read instruction manuals, especially the section on safety.
(2) Keep your lawn equipment in good working order.
(3) Never cut grass with the ground damp or in the rain.
(4) Always wear protective gear such as goggles, earplugs, and long pants.
(5) Never operate lawn equipment if you have been consuming alcohol or taking prescription medications that might inhibit your reaction.
j. Bicycle Safety. Soldiers and Family members often sustain injuries due to unsafe operation of bicycles. Lack of safety equipment and obeying traffic laws are the major causes of these injuries. The following is a list of the preventative measures that must be taken to reduce the risk of injuries.
(1) Always wear an approved bicycle helmet while riding on the Installation. An approved helmet is defined as one that meets or exceeds the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) or Snell Memorial Foundation Standards for bicycle helmets.
(2) When riding during the hours of darkness always wear an authorized reflective belt or vest and have and use an operable and visible headlight, side reflectors, and tail light.
(3) Do not wear headphones while riding bicycles (per AR 385-10, The Army Safety Program, dated 23 August 2007) and per the above mentioned JBER and FWA policy letters.
(4) Always ride with traffic and use the proper hand and arm signals.
k. Survival Items for Alaska. Each winter many Alaskans find themselves in
situations for which they were not prepared. Many become stranded during winter storms, enjoying the outdoors and/or sudden changes in weather while traveling. These situations place them in a survival environment. Soldiers are authorized to carry and wear issued TA-50 while traveling throughout Alaska for protection against cold climate, but not for recreational use. Recommend carrying a survival rucksack with Gortex complete, V.B. boots, arctic mittens, and balaclava. The following is a list of additional recommended items all Soldiers, Family members, and civilian employees should carry in their vehicles from September to the end of April. The Federal Emergency Management Agencies web site lists the following recommended items to carry when winter driving. (
(1) First aid kit with pocketknife.
(2) Several blankets.
(3) Sleeping bags.
(4) Extra news papers for insulation. (5) Plastic bags (for sanitation).
(6) Matches.
(7) Extra set of mittens, socks, and wool cap.
(8) Rain gear and extra clothes.
(9) Small bag of sand for traction under wheels.
(10) Small shovel and tools (i.e. pliers, wrench, screwdriver). (11) Booster cables.
(12) Brightly colored cloth to use as a flag.
l. Wildlife. Alaska has an abundance of wildlife, including bears and moose. These animals are not pets and should be treated with respect and caution. Do not attempt to feed them. They are very dangerous and precautions should be taken to avoid contact with these animals.
(1) Avoid contact with a moose with calves. A mother moose will attack if she feels you are a threat to her calves. Signs of aggression include ears laid back, hair on top of neck raised, and licking their lips.
(2) Avoid contact with bears of any kind. Mother bears with cubs are extremely protective and dangerous. If you encounter a bear make your presence known, make noise and warn the bear of your presence. Walk with the wind at your back, if possible so your scent will warn the bear of your presence.
(3) If you see a bear, keep calm and stay away from it. Give the bear opportunity to avoid you, talk to the bear in a normal voice and wave your arms. If the bear charges do not run, stand your ground. Try to present a big picture by raising your backpack or jacket up above your head. If in a group, stand closer together. Should a brown bear actually contact you, fall to the ground and play dead. Lie flat or curl up in a ball with your hands behind your neck. If a black bear attacks, fight back vigorously with any means available.
m. Alaska Mudflats. Glacier silt mudflats that are found on JBER, in Anchorage, Palmer, the Turnagain Arm and many other coastal areas in Alaska are deadly. At low tide the inlet is nearly void of water. The mudflats look serene and solid. But don’t be fooled, the mudflats are extremely dangerous and act like quicksand. Safety tips that can save your life:
(1) Stay off the mudflats.
(2) Use the buddy system; don’t let your buddy go on the mudflats.
11. Assistance Organizations
a. Legal Assistance. Soldiers and their dependents are eligible for free legal assistance regarding non-criminal civilian and military administrative matters (e.g., contracts, wills, insurance, leases, separation agreements, report of survey rebuttals, reprimand rebuttals, NCOER appeals, and powers of attorney) from the USARAK Legal Assistance Office located in Room A315, Bldg 600 at JBER; and Bldg 1562 at Fort Wainwright. All powers of attorney are done on a walk-in basis. Soldiers are eligible for assistance in military criminal matters from Trial Defense Services. The USARAK Field Office is located in Bldg 600, (384-0371) at JBER; and Bldg 1051, (353-6534) at Fort Wainwright.
b. Inspector General Assistance. All Soldiers, Family members, and civilians have the right to present complaints, grievances, or requests for assistance to the Inspector General. The IG provides the Commanding General continuing assessments of unit readiness, discipline, morale, and operational effectiveness. The IG serves as an honest broker with assurance of appropriate confidentiality and as an impartial fact finder that ensures due process, protection of Soldier rights and as a source of knowledge of regulatory guidance for commanders and USARAK Soldiers.
(1) Before visiting the Inspector General, you should consider whether your chain of command can address your concerns more quickly and simply. You do not have to tell anyone why you want to visit the IG, but you must have permission from your chain of command to be absent from your place of duty if you chose to visit the IG during duty hours.
(2) The Inspector General Office at JBER is located in Bldg 600, (384-0323); at Fort Wainwright in Bldg 1049, (353-6204).
c. American Red Cross. The American Red Cross is located in the People Center at JBER. You may contact the Red Cross during office hours 0800-1600 on Monday – Friday at (907) 552-5253. After office hours you may contact the Red Cross at 1-877- 272-7337. The Red Cross provides military personnel and their Family members with:
(1) Counseling and guidance on personal and Family matters.
(2) Communication/reports for emergency leave consideration between the Soldier and his/her Family.
(3) Emergency financial assistance for emergency needs.
(4) Meeting immediate emergency needs as a result of a disaster. (5) Information on service-connected benefits.
(6) Arranging for health care and safety courses.
(7) Recruiting and training volunteer workers for specific activities in dental and hospital clinics, health, and safety programs. The health and safety telephone number is 552-9596.
d. Financial Assistance. If you need financial planning assistance, contact your Chain of Command. The Financial Readiness Program Manager is located in Bldg 600, Room A117, 384-7509 at JBER; Bldg 3401, Room 71, 353-7438 at FWA.
e. Army Emergency Relief (AER). After contacting your Chain of Command, you may apply for AER assistance in your unit PAC. You are required to bring a DA Form 1103 signed by your commander, your last LES, and documents showing emergency need (when applicable). AER is located in Bldg 600, Room A119, 384-7478 at JBER; and Room 107, Bldg 3401, 353-7543 at FWA. Commanders are authorized to approve up to $1000 on the spot for Soldiers. Active duty Soldiers lacking the funds to meet their monthly obligations may request AER funds up to $1000 by submitting a completed DA Form 1103 to their immediate Commander. Lack of funds could be for a myriad of complex reasons or as simple as overextending themselves the previous month. Whatever the reason, the Co/Btry/Trp Commander must be satisfied that the Soldier request is reasonable, justifiable, and needed. If Commander approves the Soldier request, under this category, they complete item 19 of DA Form 1103, and write in Commanders Referral next to the approved box.
f. Government Sponsored Travel Cards. Soldiers are responsible for maintaining their government sponsored travel card at all times. A government sponsored travel card can only be used while on official travel status. Government sponsored travel cards
are not authorized for use during a PCS move. Soldiers and leaders will ensure they do not become delinquent on payments.
g. Off-Duty Employment. You may desire to supplement your pay by working part- time off duty. This may normally be authorized as long as it does not interfere with your military duties, but you are required to obtain approval in accordance with (IAW). CG Policy Statement #0-08. Unscheduled military after-duty requirements have priority over off-duty employment.
h. Consumer Credit Counseling Service of Alaska (CCCS). CCCS may be contacted in Anchorage at (907) 279-6501; and (907) 451-8303 in Fairbanks. The statewide toll free number is 1-800-478-6501; e-mail address is CCCS provides the following services:
(1) Offers confidential and personal debt management plans to help pay existing debt and avoid future problems.
(2) Educational programs promote consumer awareness of money management and the wise use of credit.
i. Tax Center. From January to April, the USARAK Tax Center opens its doors to help Soldiers, Family members, and retirees with their tax preparation to include form preparation and electronic filing. The USARAK Tax Center location will be published prior to tax season.
j. Army Community Service/Family Assistance Centers. ACS stands ready to provide information, assistance, and guidance on such varied subjects as financial planning, emergency care, and baby-sitting. ACS also maintains a loan closet for newly arrived Soldiers and Family members awaiting household goods. ACS is located in Bldg 600, phone: 384-1502 at JBER; and Bldg 3401, phone: 353-6267 at Fort Wainwright. The Family Assistance Centers are activated for deployable support and co-located with the ACS. The centers are intended to provide information, assistance and services to families of deployed Soldiers. When activated, the Family Assistance Center at JBER is located in Bldg 600, phone: 384-1517 and the Family Assistance Center at FWA is located in Bldg 3401, phone: 353-4458.
k. Family Support, Child Custody, and Paternity. AR 608-99 is a punitive regulation that requires Soldiers to provide financial support to their geographically separated dependents. The monetary amount is determined by a court order a valid separation agreement, or IAW AR 608-99. Soldiers who have questions concerning financial support can get legal advice in the legal assistance office. Commanders also have certain obligations when he or she receives a complaint of nonsupport. Commanders with questions concerning Soldiers financial support obligations should contact the Administrative Law section of the Staff Judge Advocate’s Office or the Inspector General Office.
l. Chaplain Assistance. Your unit chaplain is always available to you for spiritual or
Family counseling. A duty chaplain is on call at all times. Unit chaplains also have access to the food locker, which contributes food to needy Soldiers and their families.
m. Family Action Council. The Family Action Council is an unofficial organization composed of Family members from each major unit and separate command whose purpose is to identify and arbitrate problems between families and post agencies. The Family Action Council formalizes areas of concern in its monthly meeting and presents them to the post leadership.
n. Military One Source. Military OneSource Online is a DOD web-based service which provides information regarding parenting and childcare, personal and Family readiness, education, retirement, caring for older adults, disability, financial issues, legal issues, work, international issues, managing people, health, emotional well-being, addiction, and every day issues. The URL is, the user name is “military” and the password is “onesource.”
o. Army Substance Abuse Program. The Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Program Office are located in Building 1108 at JBER, phone 384-1416/17/18 and in Building 1064 at Fort Wainwright, phone 361-1370.
(1) The mission of this program is to affect a continuous vigilance targeting the reduction of alcohol and drug abuse in all populations within the USARAK communities to promote combat readiness, safety, and quality of life. All services are provided free. An adjunct program, the Adolescent Substance Abuse Counseling Service is also available and specifically designed for teens, ages 12 to 18 years. Services provided by the Adolescent Substance Abuse Counseling Service and the Employee Assistance Program are confidential.
(2) Alcohol and drug abuse prevention and control programs include the following:
(a) Education of Soldiers and community. (b) Military and civilian biochemical testing. (c) Evaluations.
(d) The Risk Reduction Program.
(e) The Employee Assistance Program.
(f) Community health programs (Fit to Win). (g) Annual awareness campaigns.
(3) The Adolescent Substance Abuse Counseling Service is also provided. Pre- vention and treatment services can assist military dependent adolescents who are experiencing alcohol and drug problems or exhibiting high-risk behaviors.
p. Education Center. The mission of the Education Center is to provide USARAK the support of the Army Continuing Education System by building professionalism, encouraging self-improvement, and serving each individual at his/her academic level of need. The center at JBER (384-0970) is located in Bldg 7, Room 250. The Center at Fort Wainwright (353-7486) is located in Bldg 2110.
(1) On-Post College Programs. On-Post courses/programs are available for Associate, Baccalaureate, and Graduate degrees. Central Texas College, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, University of Alaska Anchorage, and Wayland Baptist University provide the undergraduate courses. Graduate programs are offered through University of Alaska Anchorage, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, and Wayland Baptist University. Central Texas College and University of Alaska Anchorage provide college level instruction in Certification Programs.
(2) eArmyU. The US Army has created one of the most innovative programs of higher education in the world – Army University Access Online (known as eArmyU). eArmyU provides access to quality education for enlisted Soldiers across the globe, helping them further their professional and personal goals and providing the Army with top preparation for its forces. eArmyU supports the goal of transforming the military into an Objective Force capable of responding to the diverse and complex demands of the 21st century. Soldiers interested in participating in eArmyU should see their 1SG.
(3) Functional Academic Skills Training (FAST). FAST is the primary on-duty education program for military personnel who have deficiencies in basic communication skills. Instruction is provided to assist service members in developing reading, writing, speaking, listening, and computing skills. This is also an excellent course to help raise GT scores. See your 1SG for more information.
(4) English as a Second Language (ESL). ESL is designed to help non-English speaking Soldiers and their spouses improve their English language proficiency skills.
(5) Foreign Language Headstart Program (FLHP). Foreign language and cultural training classes are provided to service members and spouses departing for overseas. Languages include Spanish, German, Korean, Russian, Japanese, Portuguese, and Arabic.
(6) Continuing Education. The USARAK Education Center cooperates with the Moral Support Activities, the Family Life Center, and Army Community Services by providing non-credit courses in response to expressed needs. Courses may be hobby oriented, skill oriented, or self-improvement type courses.
(7) MOS Improvement Programs. These programs are MOS related and are oriented toward improving job performance (i.e., Logistics, Supply, PLL, Typing, and Military Correspondence Courses).
(8) Learning Centers. Learning centers are operated in the Main Education Center. Each learning center is equipped with audiovisual machines with study materials for professional development. Videotape machines offer programmed instruction to help students prepare for the GED and CLEP testing. Reading Machines are available for individual rapid reading instruction.