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This site contains a comprehensive list of U.S. military terms and definitions.

earliest anticipated launch time — The earliest time expected for a special operations
tactical element and its supporting platform to depart the staging or marshalling area
together en route to the operations area. Also called EALT. (JP 3-05.1)
earliest arrival date — A day, relative to C-day, that is specified by a planner as the earliest
date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a
port of debarkation during a deployment. Used with the latest arrival data, it defines a
delivery window for transportation planning. Also called EAD. See also latest arrival
Early Spring — An antireconnaissance satellite weapon system.
early time — See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment).
early warning — (*) Early notification of the launch or approach of unknown weapons or
weapons carriers. Also called EW. See also attack assessment; tactical warning.
earmarking of stocks — (*) The arrangement whereby nations agree, normally in
peacetime, to identify a proportion of selected items of their war reserve stocks to be
called for by specified NATO commanders.
earthing — (*) The process of making a satisfactory electrical connection between the
structure, including the metal skin, of an object or vehicle, and the mass of the Earth, to
ensure a common potential with the Earth. See also bonding.
echelon — (*) 1. A subdivision of a headquarters, i.e., forward echelon, rear echelon. 2.
Separate level of command. As compared to a regiment, a division is a higher echelon,
a battalion is a lower echelon. 3. A fraction of a command in the direction of depth to
which a principal combat mission is assigned; i.e., attack echelon, support echelon,
reserve echelon. 4. A formation in which its subdivisions are placed one behind
another, with a lateral and even spacing to the same side.
echeloned displacement — (*) Movement of a unit from one position to another without
discontinuing performance of its primary function. (DOD only) Normally, the unit
divides into two functional elements (base and advance); and, while the base continues
to operate, the advance element displaces to a new site where, after it becomes
operational, it is joined by the base element.
economic action — The planned use of economic measures designed to influence the
policies or actions of another state, e.g., to impair the war-making potential of a hostile
power or to generate economic stability within a friendly power.
economic order quantity — That quantity derived from a mathematical technique used to
determine the optimum (lowest) total variable costs required to order and hold
economic potential — (*) The total capacity of a nation to produce goods and services.
economic potential for war — That share of the total economic capacity of a nation that
can be used for the purposes of war.
economic retention stock — That portion of the quantity of an item excess of the approved
force retention level that has been determined will be more economical to retain for
future peacetime issue in lieu of replacement of future issues by procurement. To
warrant economic retention, items must have a reasonably predictable demand rate.
economic warfare — Aggressive use of economic means to achieve national objectives.
effect — 1. The physical or behavioral state of a system that results from an action, a set of
actions, or another effect. 2. The result, outcome, or consequence of an action. 3. A
change to a condition, behavior, or degree of freedom. (JP 3-0)
effective damage — That damage necessary to render a target element inoperative,
unserviceable, nonproductive, or uninhabitable.
effective US controlled ships — US-owned foreign flagships that can be tasked by the
Maritime Administration to support Department of Defense requirements when
necessary. Also called EUSCS.
ejection — (*) 1. Escape from an aircraft by means of an independently propelled seat or
capsule. 2. In air armament, the process of forcefully separating an aircraft store from
an aircraft to achieve satisfactory separation.
ejection systems — (*) a. command ejection system — A system in which the pilot of an
aircraft or the occupant of the other ejection seat(s) initiates ejection resulting in the
automatic ejection of all occupants. b. command select ejection system — A system
permitting the optional transfer from one crew station to another of the control of a
command ejection system for automatic ejection of all occupants. c. independent
ejection system — An ejection system which operates independently of other ejection
systems installed in one aircraft. d. sequenced ejection system — A system which
ejects the aircraft crew in sequence to ensure a safe minimum total time of escape
without collision.
electrode sweep — In naval mine warfare, a magnetic cable sweep in which the water
forms part of the electric circuit.
electro-explosive device — (*) An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates an
explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is activated by the application of
electrical energy. Also called EED. (JP 3-04)
electromagnetic compatibility — The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that
utilize the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended operational
environments without suffering unacceptable degradation or causing unintentional
degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. It involves the
application of sound electromagnetic spectrum management; system, equipment, and
device design configuration that ensures interference-free operation; and clear concepts
and doctrines that maximize operational effectiveness. Also called EMC. See also
electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic
warfare. (JP 3-13.1)
electromagnetic deception — The deliberate radiation, re-radiation, alteration, suppression,
absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of electromagnetic energy in a manner
intended to convey misleading information to an enemy or to enemy electromagneticdependent
weapons, thereby degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capability.
See also electronic warfare. (JP 3-13.4)
electromagnetic environment — The resulting product of the power and time distribution,
in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted electromagnetic emission
levels that may be encountered by a military force, system, or platform when
performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. It is the sum
of electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic pulse; hazards of electromagnetic
radiation to personnel, ordnance, and volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects
of lightning and precipitation static. Also called EME. (JP 3-13.1)
electromagnetic environmental effects — The impact of the electromagnetic environment
upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms.
It encompasses all electromagnetic disciplines, including electromagnetic compatibility
and electromagnetic interference; electromagnetic vulnerability; electromagnetic pulse;
electronic protection, hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel, ordnance, and
volatile materials; and natural phenomena effects of lightning and precipitation static.
Also called E3. (JP 3-13.1)
electromagnetic hardening — Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or
equipment by filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against
undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy. See also electronic warfare.
electromagnetic interference — Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs,
or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical
equipment. It can be induced intentionally, as in some forms of electronic warfare, or
unintentionally, as a result of spurious emissions and responses, intermodulation
products, and the like. Also called EMI. (JP 3-13.1)
electromagnetic intrusion — The intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into
transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or of
causing confusion. See also electronic warfare.
electromagnetic jamming — The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of
electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy’s effective
use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing
the enemy’s combat capability. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic
spectrum management; electronic warfare.
electromagnetic pulse — The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse,
most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may couple with electrical or
electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. Also called EMP.
See also electromagnetic radiation. (JP 3-13.1)
electromagnetic radiation — Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields
and propagated with the speed of light. Includes gamma radiation, X-rays, ultraviolet,
visible, and infrared radiation, and radar and radio waves.
electromagnetic radiation hazards — Hazards caused by transmitter or antenna
installation that generates electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance,
personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels or increases the
existing levels to a hazardous level; or a personnel, fueling, or ordnance installation
located in an area that is illuminated by electromagnetic radiation at a level that is
hazardous to the planned operations or occupancy. Also called EMR hazards or
electromagnetic spectrum — The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from
zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. See also
electronic warfare.
electromagnetic spectrum management — Planning, coordinating, and managing joint
use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and
administrative procedures. The objective of spectrum management is to enable
electronic systems to perform their functions in the intended environment without
causing or suffering unacceptable interference. See also electromagnetic spectrum.
(JP 6-0)
electromagnetic vulnerability — The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a
definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of
having been subjected to a certain level of electromagnetic environmental effects. Also
called EMV. (JP 3-13.1)
electronic attack — Division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic
energy, directed energy, or antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or
equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat
capability and is considered a form of fires. Also called EA. See also electronic
protection; electronic warfare; electronic warfare support. (JP 3-13.1)
electronic imagery dissemination — The transmission of imagery or imagery products by
any electronic means. This includes the following four categories. a. primary
imagery dissemination system — The equipment and procedures used in the
electronic transmission and receipt of un-exploited original or near-original quality
imagery in near real time. b. primary imagery dissemination — The electronic
transmission and receipt of unexploited original or near-original quality imagery in near
real time through a primary imagery dissemination system. c. secondary imagery
dissemination system — The equipment and procedures used in the electronic
transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality imagery and imagery
products in other than real or near real time. d. secondary imagery dissemination —
The electronic transmission and receipt of exploited non-original quality imagery and
imagery products in other than real or near real time through a secondary imagery
dissemination system.
electronic intelligence — Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign
noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear
detonations or radioactive sources. Also called ELINT. See also electronic warfare;
foreign instrumentation signals intelligence; intelligence; signals intelligence.
(JP 3-13.1)
electronic line of sight — The path traversed by electromagnetic waves that is not subject
to reflection or refraction by the atmosphere.
electronic masking — (*) The controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy on friendly
frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and
electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals
intelligence without significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems. (JP 3-04)
electronic probing — Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or
systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational
capabilities of the devices or systems.
electronic protection — Division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect
personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the
electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat
capability. Also called EP. See also electronic attack, electronic warfare; electronic
warfare support. (JP 3-13.1)
electronic reconnaissance — The detection, location, identification, and evaluation of
foreign electromagnetic radiations. See also electromagnetic radiation;
reconnaissance. (JP 3-13.1)
electronics security — The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny
unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception
and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar.
electronic warfare — Military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed
energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Electronic
warfare consists of three divisions: electronic attack, electronic protection, and
electronic warfare support. Also called EW. See also directed energy;
electromagnetic spectrum; electronic attack; electronic protection; electronic
warfare support. (JP 3-13.1)
electronic warfare frequency deconfliction — Actions taken to integrate those frequencies
used by electronic warfare systems into the overall frequency deconfliction process.
See also electronic warfare. (JP 3-13.1)
electronic warfare reprogramming — The deliberate alteration or modification of
electronic warfare or target sensing systems, or the tactics and procedures that employ
them, in response to validated changes in equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic
environment. These changes may be the result of deliberate actions on the part of
friendly, adversary or third parties; or may be brought about by electromagnetic
interference or other inadvertent phenomena. The purpose of electronic warfare
reprogramming is to maintain or enhance the effectiveness of electronic warfare and
target sensing system equipment. Electronic warfare reprogramming includes changes
to self defense systems, offensive weapons systems, and intelligence collection
systems. See also electronic warfare. (JP 3-13.1)
electronic warfare support — Division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by,
or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify,
and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic
energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning and conduct
of future operations. Also called ES. See also electronic attack; electronic
protection; electronic warfare. (JP 3-13.1)
electro-optical-infrared countermeasure — Any device or technique employing electrooptical-
infrared materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of
enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor
systems. Electro-optical-infrared is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum between
the high end of the far infrared and the low end of ultraviolet. Electro-optical-infrared
countermeasure may use laser and broadband jammers, smokes/aerosols, signature
suppressants, decoys, pyrotechnics/pyrophorics, high-energy lasers, or directed infrared
energy countermeasures. Also called EO-IR CM. (JP 3-13.1)
electro-optical intelligence — Intelligence other than signals intelligence derived from the
optical monitoring of the electromagnetic spectrum from ultraviolet (0.01 micrometers)
through far infrared (1,000 micrometers). Also called ELECTRO-OPTINT. See also
intelligence; laser intelligence. (JP 2-0)
electro-optics — (*) The technology associated with those components, devices and
systems which are designed to interact between the electromagnetic (optical) and the
electric (electronic) state. (JP 2-03)
element — An organization formed around a specific function within a designated
directorate of a joint force commander’s headquarters. The subordinate components of
an element usually are functional cells. (JP 3-33)
element set — Three lines of data which define the location of a satellite in space. Also
called ELSET.
elevated causeway system — An elevated causeway pier that provides a means of
delivering containers, certain vehicles, and bulk cargo ashore without the lighterage
contending with the surf zone. See also causeway. (JP 4-01.6)
elevation — (*) The vertical distance of a point or level on or affixed to the surface of the
Earth measured from mean sea level. See also altitude.
elevation tint — See hypsometric tinting.
elicitation (intelligence) — Acquisition of information from a person or group in a manner
that does not disclose the intent of the interview or conversation. A technique of
human source intelligence collection, generally overt, unless the collector is other than
he or she purports to be. (JP 2-0)
eligible traffic — Traffic for which movement requirements are submitted and space is
assigned or allocated. Such traffic must meet eligibility requirements specified in Joint
Travel Regulations for the Uniformed Services and publications of the Department of
Defense and Military Departments governing eligibility for land, sea, and air
transportation, and be in accordance with the guidance of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
embarkation — (*) The process of putting personnel and/or vehicles and their associated
stores and equipment into ships and/or aircraft. See also loading.
embarkation and tonnage table — A consolidated table showing personnel and cargo, by
troop or naval units, loaded aboard a combat-loaded ship.
embarkation area — (*) An area ashore, including a group of embarkation points, in
which final preparations for embarkation are completed and through which assigned
personnel and loads for craft and ships are called forward to embark. See also
mounting area.
embarkation element (unit) (group) — A temporary administrative formation of
personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded)
aboard the ships of one transport element (unit) (group). It is dissolved upon
completion of the embarkation. An embarkation element normally consists of two or
more embarkation teams: a unit, of two or more elements; and a group, of two or more
units. See also embarkation organization; embarkation team.
embarkation officer — An officer on the staff of units of the landing force who advises the
commander thereof on matters pertaining to embarkation planning and loading ships.
See also combat cargo officer.
embarkation order — (*) An order specifying dates, times, routes, loading diagrams, and
methods of movement to shipside or aircraft for troops and their equipment. See also
movement table.
embarkation organization — A temporary administrative formation of personnel with
supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard
amphibious shipping. See also embarkation element (unit) (group); embarkation
embarkation phase — In amphibious operations, the phase that encompasses the orderly
assembly of personnel and materiel and their subsequent loading aboard ships and/or
aircraft in a sequence designed to meet the requirements of the landing force concept of
operations ashore. (JP 3-02.2)
embarkation plans — The plans prepared by the landing force and appropriate subordinate
commanders containing instructions and information concerning the organization for
embarkation, assignment to shipping, supplies and equipment to be embarked, location
and assignment of embarkation areas, control and communication arrangements,
movement schedules and embarkation sequence, and additional pertinent instructions
relating to the embarkation of the landing force. (JP 3-02)
embarkation team — A temporary administrative formation of all personnel with supplies
and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard one ship. See
also embarkation element (unit) (group); embarkation organization.
emergency action committee — An organization established at a foreign service post by
the chief of mission or principal officer for the purpose of directing and coordinating
the post’s response to contingencies. It consists of consular representatives and
members of other local US Government agencies in a foreign country who assist in the
implementation of a Department of State emergency action plan. Also called EAC.
(JP 3-68)
emergency anchorage — (*) An anchorage, which may have a limited defense
organization, for naval vessels, mobile support units, auxiliaries, or merchant ships.
See also assembly anchorage; holding anchorage; working anchorage.
emergency barrier — See aircraft arresting barrier.
emergency-essential employee — A Department of Defense civilian employee whose
assigned duties and responsibilities must be accomplished following the evacuation of
non-essential personnel (including dependents) during a declared emergency or
outbreak of war. The position occupied cannot be converted to a military billet because
it requires uninterrupted performance so as to provide immediate and continuing
support for combat operations and/or combat systems support functions. See also
evacuation. (JP 1-0)
emergency interment — An interment, usually on the battlefield, when conditions do not
permit either evacuation for interment in an interment site or interment according to
national or international legal regulations. See also mortuary affairs; temporary
interment; trench interment. (JP 4-06)
emergency locator beacon — (*) A generic term for all radio beacons used for emergency
locating purposes. See also crash locator beacon; personal locator beacon. (JP 3-50)
emergency operations center — The physical location at which the coordination of
information and resources to support domestic incident management activities normally
takes place. An emergency operations center may be a temporary facility or may be
located in a more central or permanently established facility, perhaps at a higher level
of organization within a jurisdiction. Emergency operations centers may be organized
by major functional disciplines (e.g., fire, law enforcement, and medical services), by
jurisdiction (e.g., Federal, state, regional, county, city, tribal), or by some combination
thereof. Also called EOC. (JP 3-41)
emergency preparedness — Measures taken in advance of an emergency to reduce the loss
of life and property and to protect a nation’s institutions from all types of hazards
through a comprehensive emergency management program of preparedness,
mitigation, response, and recovery. Also called EP. (JP 3-28)
emergency preparedness liaison officer — A senior reserve officer who represents their
Service at the appropriate joint field office conducting planning and coordination
responsibilities in support of civil authorities. Also called EPLO. (JP 3-28)
emergency priority — A category of immediate mission request that takes precedence over
all other priorities, e.g., an enemy breakthrough. See also immediate mission request;
priority of immediate mission requests.
emergency relocation site — A site located where practicable outside a prime target area to
which all or portions of a civilian or military headquarters may be moved. As a
minimum, it is manned to provide for the maintenance of the facility, communications,
and database. It should be capable of rapid activation, of supporting the initial
requirements of the relocated headquarters for a predetermined period, and of
expansion to meet wartime requirements of the relocated headquarters.
emergency repair — The least amount of immediate repair to damaged facilities necessary
for the facilities to support the mission. These repairs will be made using expedient
materials and methods (such as AM-2 aluminum matting, cold-mix asphalt, plywood
scabs, temporary utility lines, and emergency generators). Modular or kit-type facility
substitutes would be appropriate if repairs cannot be made in time to meet mission
requirements. See also facility substitutes. (JP 3-34)
emergency resupply — A resupply mission that occurs based on a predetermined set of
circumstances and time interval should radio contact not be established or, once
established, is lost between a special operations tactical element and its base. See also
automatic resupply; on-call resupply. (JP 3-05.1)
emergency risk (nuclear) — A degree of risk where anticipated effects may cause some
temporary shock, casualties and may significantly reduce the unit’s combat efficiency.
See also degree of risk; negligible risk (nuclear).
emergency substitute — (*) A product which may be used, in an emergency only, in place
of another product, but only on the advice of technically qualified personnel of the
nation using the product, who will specify the limitations.
emergency support functions — A grouping of government and certain private-sector
capabilities into an organizational structure to provide the support, resources, program
implementation, and services that are most likely to be needed to save lives, protect
property and the environment, restore essential services and critical infrastructure, and
help victims and communities return to normal, when feasible, following domestic
incidents. Also called ESFs. (JP 3-28)
emission control — The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other
emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations
security: a. detection by enemy sensors; b. mutual interference among friendly
systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a military deception
plan. Also called EMCON. See also electronic warfare.
emission control orders — Orders used to authorize, control, or prohibit the use of
electronic emission equipment. Also called EMCON orders. See also control of
electromagnetic radiation.
emission security — The component of communications security that results from all
measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be
derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from cryptoequipment
and telecommunications systems. See also communications security.
(JP 6-0)
emplacement — (*) 1. A prepared position for one or more weapons or pieces of
equipment, for protection against hostile fire or bombardment, and from which they can
execute their tasks. 2. The act of fixing a gun in a prepared position from which it may
be fired.
employment — The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces. (JP 5-0)
enabling force — Early deploying forces that establish critical capabilities to facilitate
deployment and initial employment (including sustainment) of a force. See also
deployment; employment; force. (JP 4-08)
enabling mine countermeasures — Countermeasures designed to counter mines once they
have been laid. This includes both passive and active mine countermeasures. See also
mine countermeasures. (JP 3-15)
encipher — To convert plain text into unintelligible form by means of a cipher system.
end evening civil twilight — The time period when the sun has dropped 6 degrees beneath
the western horizon; it is the instant at which there is no longer sufficient light to see
objects with the unaided eye. Light intensification devices are recommended from this
time until begin morning civil twilight. Also called EECT.
end item — A final combination of end products, component parts, and/or materials that is
ready for its intended use, e.g., ship, tank, mobile machine shop, or aircraft.
end of evening nautical twilight — Occurs when the sun has dropped 12 degrees below the
western horizon, and is the instant of last available daylight for the visual control of
limited ground operations. At end of evening nautical twilight there is no further
sunlight available. See also horizon. (JP 2-01.3)
end of mission — In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, an order given to terminate
firing on a specific target. See also cease loading; call for fire; fire mission.
end state — The set of required conditions that defines achievement of the commander’s
objectives. (JP 3-0)
endurance — (*) The time an aircraft can continue flying, or a ground vehicle or ship can
continue operating, under specified conditions, e.g., without refueling. See also
endurance distance.
endurance distance — (*) Total distance that a ground vehicle or ship can be
self-propelled at any specified endurance speed.
endurance loading — The stocking aboard ship for a period of time, normally covering the
number of months between overhauls, of items with all of the following characteristics:
a. low price; b. low weight and cube; c. a predictable usage rate; and d.
nondeteriorative. See also loading.
enemy capabilities — Those courses of action of which the enemy is physically capable
and that, if adopted, will affect accomplishment of the friendly mission. The term
“capabilities” includes not only the general courses of action open to the enemy, such
as attack, defense, reinforcement, or withdrawal, but also all the particular courses of
action possible under each general course of action. “Enemy capabilities” are
considered in the light of all known factors affecting military operations, including
time, space, weather, terrain, and the strength and disposition of enemy forces. In
strategic thinking, the capabilities of a nation represent the courses of action within the
power of the nation for accomplishing its national objectives throughout the range of
military operations. See also capability; course of action; mission. (JP 2-01.3)
enemy combatant — In general, a person engaged in hostilities against the United States or
its coalition partners during an armed conflict. Also called EC. (DODD 2310.01E)
engage — (*) 1. In air defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or
weapon systems to fire on a designated target. See also cease engagement; hold fire.
2. (DOD only) To bring the enemy under fire.
engagement — 1. In air defense, an attack with guns or air-to-air missiles by an interceptor
aircraft, or the launch of an air defense missile by air defense artillery and the missile’s
subsequent travel to intercept. 2. A tactical conflict, usually between opposing lower
echelons maneuver forces. See also battle; campaign.
engineer support plan — An appendix to the logistics annex or separate annex of an
operation plan that identifies the minimum essential engineering services and
construction requirements required to support the commitment of military forces. Also
called ESP. See also operation plan. (JP 3-34)
enlisted terminal attack controller — Tactical air party member who assists in mission
planning and provides final control of close air support aircraft in support of
ground forces. Also called ETAC. See also close air support; mission; terminal.
(JP 3-09.1)
en route care — Continuation of the provision of care during movement (evacuation)
between the health service support capabilities in the continuum of care, without
clinically compromising the patient’s condition. See also evacuation; patient.
(JP 4-02)
envelopment — (*) An offensive maneuver in which the main attacking force passes
around or over the enemy’s principal defensive positions to secure objectives to the
enemy’s rear. See also turning movement.
environmental baseline survey — A multi-disciplinary site survey conducted prior to or in
the initial stage of a joint operational deployment. The survey documents existing
deployment area environmental conditions, determines the potential for present and
past site contamination (e.g., hazardous substances, petroleum products, and
derivatives), and identified potential vulnerabilities (to include occupational and
environmental health risks). Surveys accomplished in conjunction with joint
operational deployments that do not involve training or exercises (e.g., contingency
operations) should be completed to the extent practicable consistent with operational
requirements. This survey is performed in conjunction with the environmental health
site assessment whenever possible. Also called EBS. See also general
engineering. (JP 3-34)
environmental cleanup — The process of removing solid, liquid, and hazardous wastes,
except for unexploded ordnance, resulting from the joint operation of US forces to a
condition that approaches the one existing prior to operation as determined by the
environmental baseline survey, if one was conducted. The extent of this process will
depend upon the operational situation at the time that cleanup is accomplished.
environmental considerations — The spectrum of environmental media, resources, or
programs that may impact on, or are affected by, the planning and execution of military
operations. Factors may include, but are not limited to, environmental compliance,
pollution prevention, conservation, protection of historical and cultural sites, and
protection of flora and fauna. (JP 3-34)
environmental stewardship — The integration and application of environmental values
into the military mission in order to sustain readiness, improve quality of life,
strengthen civil relations, and preserve valuable natural resources.
equipment — In logistics, all nonexpendable items needed to outfit or equip an individual
or organization. See also assembly; component; subassembly; supplies. (JP 4-0)
equipment operationally ready — The status of an item of equipment in the possession of
an operating unit that indicates it is capable of fulfilling its intended mission and in a
system configuration that offers a high assurance of an effective, reliable, and safe
escalation — A deliberate or unpremeditated increase in scope or violence of a conflict.
escapee — Any person who has been physically captured by the enemy and succeeds in
getting free. See also evasion and escape.
escape line — A planned route to allow personnel engaged in clandestine activity to depart
from a site or area when possibility of compromise or apprehension exists.
escort — (*) 1. A combatant unit(s) assigned to accompany and protect another force or
convoy. 2. Aircraft assigned to protect other aircraft during a mission. 3. An armed
guard that accompanies a convoy, a train, prisoners, etc. 4. An armed guard
accompanying persons as a mark of honor. 5. (DOD only) To convoy. 6. (DOD
only) A member of the Armed Forces assigned to accompany, assist, or guide an
individual or group, e.g., an escort officer.
escort forces — Combat forces of various types provided to protect other forces against
enemy attack.
espionage — The act of obtaining, delivering, transmitting, communicating, or receiving
information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the
information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any
foreign nation. Espionage is a violation of 18 United States Code 792-798 and Article
106, Uniform Code of Military Justice. See also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)
espionage against the United States — Overt, covert, or clandestine activity designed to
obtain information relating to the national defense with intent or reason to believe that it
will be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation.
For espionage crimes see Chapter 37 of Title 18, United States Code.
essential care — Medical treatment provided to manage the casualty throughout the range
of care. This includes all care and treatment to either return the patient to duty (within
the theater evacuation policy), or begin initial treatment required for optimization of
outcome, and/or stabilization to ensure the patient can tolerate evacuation. See also en
route care; first responders; forward resuscitative care; patient; theater. (JP 4-02)
essential chemicals — In counterdrug operations, compounds that are required in the
synthetic or extraction processes of drug production, but in most cases do not become
part of the drug molecule. Essential chemicals are used in the production of cocaine or
heroin. (JP 3-07.4)
essential communications traffic — Transmissions (record or voice) of any precedence
that must be sent electrically in order for the command or activity concerned to avoid a
serious impact on mission accomplishment or safety or life.
essential elements of friendly information — Key questions likely to be asked by
adversary officials and intelligence systems about specific friendly intentions,
capabilities, and activities, so they can obtain answers critical to their operational
effectiveness. Also called EEFI.
essential elements of information — The most critical information requirements regarding
the adversary and the environment needed by the commander by a particular time to
relate with other available information and intelligence in order to assist in reaching a
logical decision. Also called EEIs. (JP 2-0)
essential industry — Any industry necessary to the needs of a civilian or war economy.
The term includes the basic industries as well as the necessary portions of those other
industries that transform the crude basic raw materials into useful intermediate or end
products, e.g., the iron and steel industry, the food industry, and the chemical industry.
essential secrecy — The condition achieved from the denial of critical information to
essential task — In the context of joint operation planning, a specified or implied task that
an organization must perform to accomplish the mission. An essential task is typically
included in the mission statement. See also implied task; specified task. (JP 5-0)
establishment — (*) An installation, together with its personnel and equipment, organized
as an operating entity. See also activity; base; equipment.
estimate — 1. An analysis of a foreign situation, development, or trend that identifies its
major elements, interprets the significance, and appraises the future possibilities and the
prospective results of the various actions that might be taken. 2. An appraisal of the
capabilities, vulnerabilities, and potential courses of action of a foreign nation or
combination of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy, decision, or
contemplated course of action. 3. An analysis of an actual or contemplated clandestine
operation in relation to the situation in which it is or would be conducted in order to
identify and appraise such factors as available as well as needed assets and potential
obstacles, accomplishments, and consequences. See also intelligence estimate.
estimative intelligence — Intelligence that identifies, describes, and forecasts adversary
capabilities and the implications for planning and executing military operations.
(JP 2-0)
evacuation — 1. Removal of a patient by any of a variety of transport means (air, ground,
rail, or sea) from a theater of military operation, or between health service support
capabilities, for the purpose of preventing further illness or injury, providing additional
care, or providing disposition of patients from the military health care system. 2. The
clearance of personnel, animals, or materiel from a given locality. 3. The controlled
process of collecting, classifying, and shipping unserviceable or abandoned materiel,
US or foreign, to appropriate reclamation, maintenance, technical intelligence, or
disposal facilities. 4. The ordered or authorized departure of noncombatants from a
specific area by Department of State, Department of Defense, or appropriate military
commander. This refers to the movement from one area to another in the same or
different countries. The evacuation is caused by unusual or emergency circumstances
and applies equally to command or non-command sponsored family members. See
also evacuee; noncombatant evacuation operations. (JP 4-02)
evacuation control ship — (*) In an amphibious operation, a ship designated as a control
point for landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and helicopters evacuating casualties from
the beaches. Medical personnel embarked in the evacuation control ship effect
distribution of casualties throughout the attack force in accordance with ship’s casualty
capacities and specialized medical facilities available, and also perform emergency
evacuation convoy — (*) A convoy which is used for evacuation of dangerously exposed
waters. See also evacuation of dangerously exposed waters.
evacuation of dangerously exposed waters — (*) The movement of merchant ships under
naval control from severely threatened coastlines and dangerously exposed waters to
safer localities. See also dangerously exposed waters.
evacuation of port equipment — (*) The transfer of mobile/movable equipment from a
threatened port to another port or to a working anchorage.
evacuee — A civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for reasons of
personal security or the requirements of the military situation. See also displaced
person; expellee; refugee. (JP 3-57)
evader — Any person isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory who eludes capture.
evaluation — In intelligence usage, appraisal of an item of information in terms of
credibility, reliability, pertinence, and accuracy.
evaluation agent — That command or agency designated in the evaluation directive to be
responsible for the planning, coordination, and conduct of the required evaluation of a
joint test publication. The evaluation agent, normally the US Joint Forces Command,
identifies evaluation criteria and the media to be used, develops a proposed evaluation
directive, coordinates exercise-related evaluation requirements with the sponsoring
commands, and provides required evaluation reports to the Director, J-7. Also called
EA. See also joint doctrine; joint test publication. (CJCSI 5120.02A)
evaluation and feedback — In intelligence usage, continuous assessment of intelligence
operations throughout the intelligence process to ensure that the commander’s
intelligence requirements are being met. See intelligence process. (JP 2-01)
evasion — The process whereby isolated personnel avoid capture with the goal of
successfully returning to areas under friendly control. (JP 3-50)
evasion aid — In personnel recovery, any piece of information or equipment designed to
assist an individual in avoiding capture. Evasion aids include, but are not limited to,
blood chits, pointee-talkees, evasion charts, barter items, and equipment designed to
complement issued survival equipment. See also blood chit; evasion; evasion chart;
pointee-talkee; recovery; recovery operations. (JP 3-50)
evasion and escape — (*) The procedures and operations whereby military personnel and
other selected individuals are enabled to emerge from an enemy-held or hostile area to
areas under friendly control. Also called E&E. (JP 3-05.2)
evasion chart — A special map or chart designed as an evasion aid. Also called EVC. See
also evasion; evasion aid. (JP 3-50)
As Amended Through 17 March 2009
JP 1-02 193
evasion plan of action — A course of action, developed prior to executing a combat
mission, that is intended to improve a potential isolated person’s chances of successful
evasion and recovery by providing the recovery forces with an additional source of
information that can increase the predictability of the evader’s action and movement.
Also called EPA. See also course of action; evader; evasion; recovery force.
(JP 3-50)
event matrix — A description of the indicators and activity expected to occur in each
named area of interest. It normally cross-references each named area of interest and
indicator with the times they are expected to occur and the courses of action they will
confirm or deny. There is no prescribed format. See also activity; area of interest;
indicator. (JP 2-01.3)
event template — A guide for collection planning. The event template depicts the named
areas of interest where activity, or its lack of activity, will indicate which course of
action the adversary has adopted. See also activity; area of interest; collection
planning; course of action. (JP 2-01.3)
exaggerated stereoscopy — See hyperstereoscopy.
exceptional transport — (*) In railway terminology, transport of a load whose size,
weight, or preparation entails special difficulties vis-a-vis the facilities or equipment of
even one of the railway systems to be used. See also ordinary transport.
excess property — The quantity of property in possession of any component of the
Department of Defense that exceeds the quantity required or authorized for retention by
that component.
exclusive economic zone — A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not
extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the
territorial sea is measured. Within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ), the coastal state
has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing
natural resources, both living and nonliving, of the seabed, subsoil, and the subjacent
waters and, with regard to other activities, for the economic exploitation and
exploration of the zone (e.g., the production of energy from the water, currents, and
winds). Within the EEZ, the coastal state has jurisdiction with regard to establishing
and using artificial islands, installations, and structures having economic purposes as
well as for marine scientific research and the protection and preservation of the marine
environment. Other states may, however, exercise traditional high seas freedoms of
navigation, overflight, and related freedoms, such as conducting military exercises in
the EEZ. Also called EEZ.
exclusion zone — A zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specific activities in
a specific geographic area. The purpose may be to persuade nations or groups to
modify their behavior to meet the desires of the sanctioning body or face continued
imposition of sanctions, or use or threat of force. (JP 3-0)
execute order — 1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, at the
direction of the Secretary of Defense, to implement a decision by the President to
initiate military operations. 2. An order to initiate military operations as directed. Also
called EXORD. (JP 5-0)
executing commander (nuclear weapons) — A commander to whom nuclear weapons are
released for delivery against specific targets or in accordance with approved plans. See
also commander(s); releasing commander (nuclear weapons).
execution planning — The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System translation of
an approved course of action into an executable plan of action through the preparation
of a complete operation plan or operation order. Execution planning is detailed
planning for the commitment of specified forces and resources. During crisis action
planning, an approved operation plan or other approved course of action is adjusted,
refined, and translated into an operation order. Execution planning can proceed on the
basis of prior contingency planning, or it can take place in the absence of prior
planning. Also called EP. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution
System. (JP 5-0)
executive agent — A term used to indicate a delegation of authority by the Secretary of
Defense to a subordinate to act on behalf of the Secretary of Defense. Designation as
executive agent, in and of itself, confers no authority. The exact nature and scope of
the authority delegated must be stated in the document designating the executive agent.
An executive agent may be limited to providing only administration and support or
coordinating common functions, or it may be delegated authority, direction, and control
over specified resources for specified purposes. Also called EA. (JP 1)
exercise — A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning,
preparation, and execution. It is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation.
It may be a multinational, joint, or single-Service exercise, depending on participating
organizations. See also command post exercise; field exercise; maneuver.
exercise directing staff — (*) A group of officers who by virtue of experience,
qualifications, and a thorough knowledge of the exercise instructions, are selected to
direct or control an exercise.
exercise filled mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine containing an inert filling and an
indicating device. See also explosive filled mine; fitted mine; mine.
exercise incident — (*) An occurrence injected by directing staffs into the exercise which
will have an effect on the forces being exercised, or their facilities, and which will
require action by the appropriate commander and/or staff being exercised.
exercise mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine suitable for use in mine warfare
exercises, fitted with visible or audible indicating devices to show where and when it
would normally fire. See also drill mine; mine; practice mine.
exercise specifications — (*) The fundamental requirements for an exercise, providing in
advance an outline of the concept, form, scope, setting, aim, objectives, force
requirements, political implications, analysis arrangements, and costs.
exercise sponsor — (*) The commander who conceives a particular exercise and orders
that it be planned and executed either by the commander’s staff or by a subordinate
exercise study — (*) An activity which may take the form of a map exercise, a war game,
a series of lectures, a discussion group, or an operational analysis.
exercise term — A combination of two words, normally unclassified, used exclusively to
designate a test, drill, or exercise. An exercise term is employed to preclude the
possibility of confusing exercise directives with actual operations directives.
exfiltration — The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control by
stealth, deception, surprise, or clandestine means. See also special operations;
unconventional warfare.
existence load — Consists of items other than those in the fighting load that are required to
sustain or protect the combat soldier. These items may be necessary for increased
personal and environmental protection and are not normally carried by the individual.
See also fighting load.
exoatmosphere — See nuclear exoatmospheric burst.
expedition — A military operation conducted by an armed force to accomplish a specific
objective in a foreign country. (JP 3-0)
expeditionary force — An armed force organized to accomplish a specific objective in a
foreign country. (JP 3-0)
expellee — A civilian outside the boundaries of the country of his or her nationality or
ethnic origin who is being forcibly repatriated to that country or to a third country for
political or other purposes. See also displaced person; evacuee; refugee. (JP 3-57)
expendable property — Property that may be consumed in use or loses its identity in use
and may be dropped from stock record accounts when it is issued or used.
expendable supplies and materiel — Supplies that are consumed in use, such as
ammunition, paint, fuel, cleaning and preserving materials, surgical dressings, drugs,
medicines, etc., or that lose their identity, such as spare parts, etc. Also called
consumable supplies and materiel.
exploder — (*) A device designed to generate an electric current in a firing circuit after
deliberate action by the user in order to initiate an explosive charge or charges.
exploitation — (*) 1. (DOD only) Taking full advantage of success in military
operations, following up initial gains, and making permanent the temporary effects
already achieved. 2. Taking full advantage of any information that has come to hand
for tactical, operational, or strategic purposes. 3. An offensive operation that usually
follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. See also
attack; pursuit.
exploratory hunting — (*) In naval mine warfare, a parallel operation to search sweeping,
in which a sample of the route or area is subjected to minehunting procedures to
determine the presence or absence of mines.
explosive filled mine — (*) In mine warfare, a mine containing an explosive charge but not
necessarily the firing train needed to detonate it. See also exercise filled mine; fitted
explosive hazard — Any hazard containing an explosive component. Explosive hazards
include unexploded explosive ordnance (including land mines), booby traps (some
booby traps are nonexplosive), improvised explosive devices (which are an improvised
type of booby trap), captured enemy ammunition, and bulk explosives. Also called
EH. (JP 3-15)
explosive ordnance — (*) All munitions containing explosives, nuclear fission or fusion
materials, and biological and chemical agents. This includes bombs and warheads;
guided and ballistic missiles; artillery, mortar, rocket, and small arms ammunition; all
mines, torpedoes, and depth charges; demolition charges; pyrotechnics; clusters and
dispensers; cartridge and propellant actuated devices; electro-explosive devices;
clandestine and improvised explosive devices; and all similar or related items or
components explosive in nature.
explosive ordnance disposal — (*) The detection, identification, on-site evaluation,
rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance. It may
also include explosive ordnance which has become hazardous by damage or
deterioration. Also called EOD.
explosive ordnance disposal incident — (*) The suspected or detected presence of
unexploded or damaged explosive ordnance which constitutes a hazard to operations,
installations, personnel, or material. Not included in this definition are the accidental
arming or other conditions that develop during the manufacture of high explosive
material, technical service assembly operations or the laying of mines and demolition
explosive ordnance disposal procedures — (*) Those particular courses or modes of
action taken by explosive ordnance disposal personnel for access to, diagnosis,
rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of explosive ordnance or any hazardous
material associated with an explosive ordnance disposal incident. a. access
procedures — Those actions taken to locate exactly and gain access to unexploded
explosive ordnance. b. diagnostic procedures — Those actions taken to identify and
evaluate unexploded explosive ordnance. c. render safe procedures — The portion
of the explosive ordnance disposal procedures involving the application of special
explosive ordnance disposal methods and tools to provide for the interruption of
functions or separation of essential components of unexploded explosive ordnance to
prevent an unacceptable detonation. d. recovery procedures — Those actions taken
to recover unexploded explosive ordnance. e. final disposal procedures — The final
disposal of explosive ordnance which may include demolition or burning in place,
removal to a disposal area, or other appropriate means.
explosive ordnance disposal unit — Personnel with special training and equipment who
render explosive ordnance safe (such as bombs, mines, projectiles, and booby traps),
make intelligence reports on such ordnance, and supervise the safe removal thereof.
explosive train — (*) A succession of initiating and igniting elements arranged to cause a
charge to function.
exposure dose — (*) The exposure dose at a given point is a measurement of radiation in
relation to its ability to produce ionization. The unit of measurement of the exposure
dose is the roentgen.
exposure station — See air station.
extended communications search — In search and rescue operations, consists of
contacting all possible sources of information on the missing craft, including physically
checking possible locations such as harbors, marinas, and airport ramps. An extended
communications search is normally conducted after a preliminary communications
search has yielded no results and when the mission is upgraded to the alert phase. Also
called EXCOM. See also preliminary communications search; search and rescue
incident classification, Subpart b.
extent of a military exercise — (*) The scope of an exercise in relation to the involvement
of NATO and/or national commands. See also intra-command exercise.
extent of damage — The visible plan area of damage to a target element, usually expressed
in units of 1,000 square feet, in detailed damage analysis and in approximate
percentages in immediate-type damage assessment reports; e.g., 50 percent structural
external audience — All people who are not part of the internal audience of US military
members and civilian employees and their immediate families. Part of the concept of
“publics.” Includes many varied subsets that may be referred to as “audiences” or
“publics.” See also internal audience; public.
external reinforcing force — (*) A reinforcing force which is principally stationed in
peacetime outside its intended Major NATO Command area of operations.
external support contract — Contract awarded by contracting organizations whose
contracting authority does not derive directly from the theater support contracting
head(s) of contracting activity or from systems support contracting authorities. See also
systems support contract; theater support contract. (JP 4-10)
extraction parachute — An auxiliary parachute designed to release and extract and deploy
cargo from aircraft in flight and deploy cargo parachutes. See also gravity extraction.
extraction zone — (*) A specified drop zone used for the delivery of supplies and/or
equipment by means of an extraction technique from an aircraft flying very close to the
ground. (JP 3-17)